Download A Grammar of Misantla Totonac: Studies in Indigenous by Carolyn Mackay PDF

By Carolyn Mackay

The Totonac-Tepehua language relatives, notwithstanding typologically just like another Mesoamerican languages, has now not but been verified to be regarding the other language kin. Misantla Totonac is the southernmost number of Totonac and is spoken within the zone among Xalapa, the capital of Veracruz, Mexico and Misantla, Veracruz. In 1974, a newly paved street attached Xalapa and Misantla bringing a comparatively remoted region into touch with mainstream Mexican language and tradition. as a result, Misantla Totonac isn't any longer received as a primary language by way of the neighborhood young ones and is swiftly being changed by means of Spanish. A GRAMMAR OF MISANTLA TOTONAC offers the phonological constitution of the language and the most efficient morphological strategies. It describes inflection and derivation of all significant be aware periods (verbs, nominals, and statives) intimately. It introduces grammatical contract and be aware order phenomena, and offers the main salient and important features of Misantla Totonac grammar. even if quite a few Totonac-Tepehua grammars exist in Spanish, this is often the one released grammar of the Totonac-Tepehua language relations presently to be had in English. Winner of the yearly Society for the examine of Indigenous Languages of the Americas (SSILA) ebook Award, this marks the 3rd quantity to be released within the sequence. "The fabric offered this is key to any destiny paintings in reconstructing the proto-language. . . .[It] is an important contribution to either normal linguistics in addition to to Mesoamerican reviews. -James Watters, summer time Institute of Linguistics

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Very often the present tense is used to tell what is going to happen You might overhear some colleagues saying: ߜ Morgen werk ik thuis. ) Ik bel je morgen. ) Mother’s little helper: using the perfect tense In English there are two ways of describing the past: using the perfect tense (I have worked) and the past tense (I worked). Dutch also has these two tenses, but the Dutch very often use the perfect instead of the past tense. Some English native speakers feel shortcomings when they study Dutch, because it takes time to learn the irregular forms of the Dutch past tense.

Prepositions are small words of great importance. They tell you whether something is in, on, under or next to the place where you are looking for it. You will use them very often and you will soon learn if something is in het bed, op het bed, onder het bed, or bij het bed. Prepositions of place and those of time are used most. Like in English many Dutch verbs go together with certain prepositions: the so-called phrasal verbs. Sometimes the combination of verb and preposition is logical, sometimes not at all.

Adjectives tell something more about an object, a person or an idea: whether he, she or it is pretty, big, good or anything else that characterises the object, person or idea. For most students of Dutch it’s not easy to relate adjectives to the nouns they correspond with. The problem is that you sometimes add an e to the adjective and sometimes you don’t. Check the following examples: ߜ de mooie man (der moa-yer man) (the handsome man) ߜ de mooie mannen (der moa-yer man-ern) (the handsome men) ߜ de mooie vrouw (der moa-yer frow) (the pretty woman) ߜ de mooie vrouwen (der moa-yer frow-ern) (the pretty women) ߜ het mooie jongetje (het moa-yer yong-er-tyer) (the pretty little boy) ߜ de mooie jongetjes (der moa-yer yong-er-tyers) (the pretty little boys) So far so good.

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