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By Ian J. Press

The sequence builds an intensive selection of prime quality descriptions of languages all over the world. every one quantity bargains a complete grammatical description of a unmarried language including totally analyzed pattern texts and, if acceptable, a glossary and different appropriate details that is on hand at the language in query. There are not any regulations as to language relations or sector, and even supposing distinct recognition is paid to hitherto undescribed languages, new and worthy remedies of higher identified languages also are integrated. No theoretical version is imposed at the authors; the one criterion is a excessive ordinary of medical caliber.

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Extra info for A Grammar of Modern Breton

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It has to be voice, unless it is claimed that absolute word-initially the articulatory force employed renders consonants stronger than lenis, let's say "non-fortis". 2. Quantity In 1947/1976, p. " "abrupt" "rafter" Anyone hearing Breton cannot but be at first struck by the quantitative differences between the vowels. Yet the question remains as to how relatively significant quantity is among these three problematic features. If we disregard expressive lengthening, then long vowels occur only under stress.

The preceding vowel, if stressed, is long. Absolute word-initially, however, there is fortis /rr/ (with the same situation regarding the articles: ai/ux). Intervocalically, after stress, the opposition seems to be maintained: heran f 'bbe:ra1 " ( t o ) drip" - berran 'bberrä] (SUP) ( F a l c ' h u n in 1951, p . 4 9 ; a d a p t e d ) The vibrant(s) are pronounced as an alveolar trill or as a uvular fricative, depending on local usage. The overall tendency has been for the uvular to replace the trill, probably under the influence of standard French.

Function as /nn/, /n/ (to the extent too that their definite/indefinite article forms are aj/uj). After an unstressed vowel there is some blurring of the difference. The blurring is more or less total in the case of /rr/, /r/; fortis /rr/ is minimally fortis. The situation with nasals, laterals and vibrant(s) is created by the absence of any significant correlation of voice. 51, 61). With /rr/-/r/ we seem to have a final lenis, even when n is written. The preceding vowel, if stressed, is long.

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