By J. S. Madden (Auth.)
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Extra resources for A Guide to Alcohol and Drug Dependence
This mechanism takes place with amphetamine-like drugs in respect of depletion of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and dopamine. The process is capable of inducing both tolerance and withdrawal phenomena. It is likely that feedback mechanisms are involved. Alterations induced by a drug in neurotransmitter activity could, through negative or positive feedback, produce long-term changes in the enzymatic production of the relevant neurotransmitter or in its storage or release from nerve terminals. Morphine-like drugs occupy the same receptor sites on neurons as the endogenous opioid peptides.
6 4 , 297-304. Goldstein A. and Judson B. A . ( 1 9 7 1 ) Alcohol dependence and opiate dependence: Lack of relationship in mice. Science 1 7 2 , 2 9 0 - 2 9 2 . Goodwin D . , Hermansen L. et al. ( 1 9 7 3 ) Alcohol problems in adoptees raised apart from alcoholic biological parents. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 28, 238-242. Goodwin D . , Möller Ν . et al. ( 1 9 7 4 ) Drinking problems in adopted and nonadopted sons of alcoholics. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 3 1 , 1 6 4 - 1 6 9 . Goodwin D . , Knop J. et al.
The first site constituted a locus on the cell membrane; according to the hypothesis drug interaction with this site depresses neuronal activity. The second proposed site was placed within the neuron; drug occupancy of the second site leads to excitation of the neuron. Following m o φ h i n e withdrawal (or administration of a m o φ h i n e antagonist such as naloxone) the m o φ h i n e is cleared more rapidly from the first receptor site, leading to predominance of the second site. This hypothesis did not involve the 'latent hyperexcitability' concept of adaptation to the effect of m o φ h i n e and is no longer offered in its initial formulation.