Download A history of the theories of aether and electricity Vol 1 by Edmund T. Whittaker PDF

By Edmund T. Whittaker

Particular, debatable, and regularly mentioned, this survey bargains hugely designated bills about the improvement of principles and theories in regards to the nature of electrical energy and area (aether). with ease obtainable to normal readers in addition to highschool scholars, lecturers, and undergraduates, it comprises a lot info unavailable elsewhere.
This single-volume version includes either The Classical Theories and the trendy Theories, which have been initially released individually. the 1st quantity covers the theories of classical physics from the age of the Greek philosophers to the past due nineteenth century. the second one quantity chronicles discoveries that ended in the advances of recent physics, concentrating on unique relativity, quantum theories, common relativity, matrix mechanics, and wave mechanics. famous historian of technological know-how I. Bernard Cohen, who reviewed those books for Scientific American, saw, "I understand of no different heritage of electrical energy that's as sound as Whittaker's. All those that have came across stimulation from his works will learn this informative and exact background with curiosity and profit."

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BEGINNINGS29 Quipus with as many as 1,800 cords have been found, and as different-coloured threads signified different kinds of information, these fascinating objects demonstrate that sophisticated record keeping is not the exclusive domain of the written word. Very few quipus have survived, and given that they are far more distant than the Incas, it is plausible that many prehistoric civilizations possessed long-lost means of embodying data. It is worth remembering that only a tiny subset of equipment survives the ravages of time, and if people kept records by arranging pebbles or making scratches on bark, we might have no way of knowing.

In particular, every year Egyptian matheÂ�maticians needed to replace the property markers that were washed away from the flood plains of the Nile. The story of geometric techniques arising with the need to measure fields is certainly plausible, but there were also prehistoric traditions for communicating specific plans for temples and other buildings, which necessarily involves a language of shape, so this claim may not actually be correct. What is known for certain is that by the third millennium bc, civilizations with sophisticated matheÂ�matical practices had developed along the fertile banks of many of the world’s great rivers.

A great deal of money was spent, and scholars were employed to gather an encycloÂ�paedic range of texts into an open, secular institution, modelled on the Athenian schools. â•›325–265 bc) started his school of matheÂ�matics. Euclid himself trained at Plato’s Academy, but under the rule of Alexander’s general, Ptolemy I, Alexandria rose to become the scientific capitol of the world. Indeed, within Euclid’s lifetime it became a greater centre of matheÂ�matical excellence than anywhere in Greece and, what is more, it maintained its pre-eminent position for five hundred years or so.

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