By Larry Patriquin
This ebook examines the evolution of public counsel for the bad in England shape the overdue medieval period to the commercial Revolution. putting negative reduction within the context of the original category relations of agrarian capitalism, it considers how and why aid in England within the early sleek interval was once special, with comparisons made to Scotland, eire, France and Germany. hard and provocative, the writer argues for a class-based reinterpretation of the origins of the welfare nation.
Read or Download Agrarian Capitalism and Poor Relief in England, 1500-1860: Rethinking the Origins of the Welfare State PDF
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Extra resources for Agrarian Capitalism and Poor Relief in England, 1500-1860: Rethinking the Origins of the Welfare State
Landed property is ‘the legal fiction by virtue of which various individuals have exclusive possession of particular parts of the globe’ (Marx, 1981, p. 772). In sum, ‘private ownership of land, and thus the expropriation from the land of the direct producers – private ownership for some, involving non-ownership of the land for others – is the basis of the capitalist mode of production’ (Marx, 1981, p. 948). In one of his final works, Marx (1989, pp. 355, 357) indicated how this process tended to unfold.
In contrast, he suggested that explaining the transition to capitalism requires a focus on class relations and forms of property ownership, in particular the rules for social/biological reproduction. The main class conflict in almost all non-capitalist societies was between landlords and peasants. The question is how precisely, over a long period of time, was this social relation abolished, and how were the social actors ‘landlord’ and ‘peasant’ replaced by ‘capitalist’ and ‘wage-labourer’? How did it happen that nearly everyone was forced to produce almost exclusively for the market?
This continues until the state, prodded by working-class resistance, reforms capitalism by placing some restrictions on its ability to rule production. A third characteristic of capitalism is its unique method of employing the workforce. The precapitalist division of labour was social. It was based on different trades, hence the development of occupations like tailors, locksmiths, carriage-makers and so on. In some guilds, particular tasks could be divided amongst a number of specialists whose combined work would contribute to the commodity.