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By Morris R. Cohen, Ernest Nagel

An creation to common sense and clinical technique is a faculty point primer on common sense. This ebook was once broadly utilized by students in particular these learning economics as an creation to logical inspiration in practise for highbrow discourse. Ludwig von Mises was once recognized to claim that every one scholars of economics may still learn this publication as a primary step of their education as economists.

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The former, on the other hand, cannot in any way be interpreted in this manner. We shall return to this matter presently. The conclusion we have reached, that universals do not imply the existence of any verifying instances, while particulars do imply it, will doubtless seem paradoxical to the reader. ) The reader will perhaps cite propositions like All dogs are faithful and urge that they do imply the existence of dogs. Now it may well be that when the reader asserts All dogs are faithful he also intends to assert There are dogs.

We may then group objects together in spite of superficial differences, or group objects differently in spite of super­ ficial resemblances. The conventional intension of the term “metal” may thus become gradually modified. The assigning of the satis­ factory conventional intension (or definition) to a term denoting objects with familiar common traits is a difficult task, and is a rela­ tively late achievement of human thought. ” They are arranged in order of subordination, the term “figure” denoting a class which includes the denotation of “ plane figure,” and so on.

We shall find this distinction of paramount importance in the discussion of induction and deduc­ tion. Many mistaken views concerning the former are the outcome of ignoring it. Is the proposition Thais was a courtesan in Alexandria universal or particular? The reader may be tempted to say it is the latter. But that would be an error, for he would then be using “particular” in a sense different from the one employed in classifying proposi­ tions. On the basis of the definition of universal propositions as those which affirm something of all of the subject, this proposition must be regarded as a universal.

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