Download Analyzing Animal Societies: Quantitative Methods for by Hal Whitehead PDF

By Hal Whitehead

When you are within the box of ethology or behavioral ecology, or the rest learning animal habit, this ebook grants every thing you must find out about social analyses. Hal Whitehead lays out exact yet comprehensible guide on every little thing from facts assortment to software program courses. i like it.

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Extra resources for Analyzing Animal Societies: Quantitative Methods for Vertebrate Social Analysis

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These questions are behind many, perhaps most, studies of animal societies; we are interested in the functional value of elements of a social structure to its members relative to other possibilities. In behavioral ecology, there are three principal methodological approaches: comparisons of individuals, experiments, and comparisons of species (Krebs & Davies 1991). , Kummer et al. 1974; Chase et al. 2002; Durrell et al. 2004; Flack et al. 2006). Instead, most frequently, we examine functionality in social systems by considering the position of individuals within a social structure and how patterns of interactions and relationships may relate to fitness.

There are aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial species. These studies took place on the lands or waters of nine nations and examined free-living, provisioned, and captive animals. In one case, there was an experimental component to the study. The studies ranged very considerably in scale, with 9 to 1,767 animals being identified individually through a variety of methods over spatial spans ranging from 4 m to 200 km. They also ranged very considerably in scope, from work directed toward one principal question, such as whether individuals associate randomly (Myers 1983), to multifaceted and detailed descriptions of social life (Goodall 1986).

7), but they mean nothing, as do quite a few of the published classifications of individuals in studies of animal societies. There is a large range of statistical methods available for classification. For introductions to cluster analysis see, for instance, Bridge (1993), Legendre and Legendre (1998, pp. 303–385), and Manly (1994, pp. 128–141). Cluster analyses can be divided into nonhierarchical and hierarchical methods. In nonhierarchical cluster analysis, a set of subjects (usually individuals in social analysis) is separated into clusters such that, in some defined sense, the separation between the clusters is maximized.

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