By Guglielmo Ferrero
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"Speaking of Siva" is a range of vacanas or free-verse sayings from the Virasaiva spiritual flow, devoted to Siva because the ultimate god. Written via 4 significant saints, the best exponents of this poetic shape, among the 10th and 12th centuries, they're passionate lyrical expressions of the hunt for an unpredictable and spontaneous non secular imaginative and prescient of 'now'.
E-book 25 of Ammianus Marcellinus' Res Gestae is the ultimate a part of the trilogy (books 23-25) at the emperor Julian's Persian day trip. overlaying a interval of 8 months, from June 17, 363 to February 17, 364, it features a sequence of momentous occasions: the demise of Julian on June 26, the extraordinary appointment of the unexperienced Jovian as his successor, the dramatic and hard go back of the Roman military, the painful quit of Roman territory round the top process the Tigris to the Persian king Sapor, and eventually Jovian's surprising dying.
Callimachus of Cyrene, third century BCE, turned after 284 a instructor of grammar and poetry at Alexandria. He was once made a librarian within the new library there and ready a list of its books. He died concerning the 12 months 240. Of his huge released output, in basic terms 6 hymns, sixty three epigrams, and fragments live to tell the tale (the fragments are in Loeb no.
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He was also the living personifica- of tion of the State and of the general interest, invested powers of exercising his own judgment, over and above the laws, on behalf of the State and of the with full general interest, short, by when the law was found wanting. In reinforcing the authority of the magistrates, the ancient states endeavoured to make amends for the weakening of the State which was bound to ensue from the continual electoral changes and the instability of the offices while Europe, on the other hand, which, with her rigid bureaucracies, has made the power of the State so strong, can rigorously limit the powers of her all ; functionaries with laws of last remnant immense scope.
New machines of They had no need to work to construct They could work greater at high slowly, with their hands and with a few simple instruments, and with them produce beautiful, accurate, and finished articles, which aspired to a lofty and difficult ideal of perfection. Accordingly, art occupied in the ancient world the position which science occupies in It was not a modern civilisation. refined luxury for the few, but an elemen- tary and universal necessity. Governments and wealthy citizens were obliged to adorn their ments, sculptures, and cities with monu- pictures, to embellish squares, and houses, because the masses wished the cities to be beautiful, and would have rebelled against an streets, authority which would have them live in an unadorned city; just as nowadays they would rebel against a municipal authority which would have them dwell in a city without light, or against a government which placed obstacles and hindrances in the way of the Quantity and Quality 49 In those times, the require- construction of railways.
In this divergence of opinion revealed the essential difference between ourselves and the ancients, Greco-Roman between modern civilisation civilisation, for all that these each other in so many particulars ; and resemble the principal differ- ence between the ancient world and America. Although, 40 Quantity and Quality as I have shown in my preceding essay, tain of its institutions and forms America 41 in cer- of social life resembles the ancient world more than Europe, this comparison does not hold true so far as the instruments of economic In this respect America further removed from the ancient world than production are concerned.