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By Guglielmo Ferrero

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He was also the living personifica- of tion of the State and of the general interest, invested powers of exercising his own judgment, over and above the laws, on behalf of the State and of the with full general interest, short, by when the law was found wanting. In reinforcing the authority of the magistrates, the ancient states endeavoured to make amends for the weakening of the State which was bound to ensue from the continual electoral changes and the instability of the offices while Europe, on the other hand, which, with her rigid bureaucracies, has made the power of the State so strong, can rigorously limit the powers of her all ; functionaries with laws of last remnant immense scope.

New machines of They had no need to work to construct They could work greater at high slowly, with their hands and with a few simple instruments, and with them produce beautiful, accurate, and finished articles, which aspired to a lofty and difficult ideal of perfection. Accordingly, art occupied in the ancient world the position which science occupies in It was not a modern civilisation. refined luxury for the few, but an elemen- tary and universal necessity. Governments and wealthy citizens were obliged to adorn their ments, sculptures, and cities with monu- pictures, to embellish squares, and houses, because the masses wished the cities to be beautiful, and would have rebelled against an streets, authority which would have them live in an unadorned city; just as nowadays they would rebel against a municipal authority which would have them dwell in a city without light, or against a government which placed obstacles and hindrances in the way of the Quantity and Quality 49 In those times, the require- construction of railways.

In this divergence of opinion revealed the essential difference between ourselves and the ancients, Greco-Roman between modern civilisation civilisation, for all that these each other in so many particulars ; and resemble the principal differ- ence between the ancient world and America. Although, 40 Quantity and Quality as I have shown in my preceding essay, tain of its institutions and forms America 41 in cer- of social life resembles the ancient world more than Europe, this comparison does not hold true so far as the instruments of economic In this respect America further removed from the ancient world than production are concerned.

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